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TRA is an S3 generic that efficiently transforms data by either (column-wise) replacing data values with supplied statistics or sweeping the statistics out of the data. TRA supports grouped operations and data transformation by reference, and is thus a generalization of sweep.

Usage

TRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", ...)
setTRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", ...) # Shorthand for invisible(TRA(..., set = TRUE))

# S3 method for default
TRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", g = NULL, set = FALSE, ...)

# S3 method for matrix
TRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", g = NULL, set = FALSE, ...)

# S3 method for data.frame
TRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", g = NULL, set = FALSE, ...)

# S3 method for grouped_df
TRA(x, STATS, FUN = "-", keep.group_vars = TRUE, set = FALSE, ...)

Arguments

x

a atomic vector, matrix, data frame or grouped data frame (class 'grouped_df').

STATS

a matching set of summary statistics. See Details and Examples.

FUN

an integer or character string indicating the operation to perform. There are 11 supported operations:

Int. String Description
0"na" or "replace_na"replace missing values in x
1"fill" or "replace_fill"replace data and missing values in x
2"replace"replace data but preserve missing values in x
3"-"subtract (i.e. center)
4"-+"subtract group-statistics but add group-frequency weighted average of group statistics (i.e. center on overall average statistic)
5"/"divide (i.e. scale. For mean-preserving scaling see also fscale)
6"%"compute percentages (i.e. divide and multiply by 100)
7"+"add
8"*"multiply
9"%%"modulus (i.e. remainder from division by STATS)
10"-%%"subtract modulus (i.e. make data divisible by STATS)

g

a factor, GRP object, atomic vector (internally converted to factor) or a list of vectors / factors (internally converted to a GRP object) used to group x. Number of groups must match rows of STATS. See Details.

set

logical. TRUE transforms data by reference i.e. performs in-place modification of the data without creating a copy.

keep.group_vars

grouped_df method: Logical. FALSE removes grouping variables after computation. See Details and Examples.

...

arguments to be passed to or from other methods.

Details

Without groups (g = NULL), TRA is little more than a column based version of sweep, albeit many times more efficient. In this case all methods support an atomic vector of statistics of length NCOL(x) passed to STATS. The matrix and data frame methods also support a 1-row matrix or 1-row data frame / list, respectively. TRA always preserves all attributes of x.

With groups passed to g, STATS needs to be of the same type as x and of appropriate dimensions [such that NCOL(x) == NCOL(STATS) and NROW(STATS) equals the number of groups (i.e. the number of levels if g is a factor)]. If this condition is satisfied, TRA will assume that the first row of STATS is the set of statistics computed on the first group/level of g, the second row on the second group/level etc. and do groupwise replacing or sweeping out accordingly.

For example Let x = c(1.2, 4.6, 2.5, 9.1, 8.7, 3.3), g is an integer vector in 3 groups g = c(1,3,3,2,1,2) and STATS = fmean(x,g) = c(4.95, 6.20, 3.55). Then out = TRA(x,STATS,"-",g) = c(-3.75, 1.05, -1.05, 2.90, 3.75, -2.90) [same as fmean(x, g, TRA = "-")] does the equivalent of the following for-loop: for(i in 1:6) out[i] = x[i] - STATS[g[i]].

Correct computation requires that g as used in fmean and g passed to TRA are exactly the same vector. Using g = c(1,3,3,2,1,2) for fmean and g = c(3,1,1,2,3,2) for TRA will not give the right result. The safest way of programming with TRA is thus to repeatedly employ the same factor or GRP object for all grouped computations. Atomic vectors passed to g will be converted to factors (see qF) and lists will be converted to GRP objects. This is also done by all Fast Statistical Functions and BY, thus together with these functions, TRA can also safely be used with atomic- or list-groups (as long as all functions apply sorted grouping, which is the default in collapse).

If x is a grouped data frame ('grouped_df'), TRA matches the columns of x and STATS and also checks for grouping columns in x and STATS. TRA.grouped_df will then only transform those columns in x for which matching counterparts were found in STATS (exempting grouping columns) and return x again (with columns in the same order). If keep.group_vars = FALSE, the grouping columns are dropped after computation, however the "groups" attribute is not dropped (it can be removed using fungroup() or dplyr::ungroup()).

Value

x with columns replaced or swept out using STATS, (optionally) grouped by g.

Note

In most cases there is no need to call the TRA() function, because of the TRA-argument to all Fast Statistical Functions (ensuring that the exact same grouping vector is used for computing statistics and subsequent transformation). In addition the functions fbetween/B and fwithin/W and fscale/STD provide optimized solutions for frequent scaling, centering and averaging tasks.

Examples

v <- iris$Sepal.Length          # A numeric vector
f <- iris$Species               # A factor
dat <- num_vars(iris)           # Numeric columns
m <- qM(dat)                    # Matrix of numeric data

head(TRA(v, fmean(v)))                # Simple centering [same as fmean(v, TRA = "-") or W(v)]
#> [1] -0.7433333 -0.9433333 -1.1433333 -1.2433333 -0.8433333 -0.4433333
head(TRA(m, fmean(m)))                # [same as sweep(m, 2, fmean(m)), fmean(m, TRA = "-") or W(m)]
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]   -0.7433333  0.44266667       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> [2,]   -0.9433333 -0.05733333       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> [3,]   -1.1433333  0.14266667       -2.458  -0.9993333
#> [4,]   -1.2433333  0.04266667       -2.258  -0.9993333
#> [5,]   -0.8433333  0.54266667       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> [6,]   -0.4433333  0.84266667       -2.058  -0.7993333
head(TRA(dat, fmean(dat)))            # [same as fmean(dat, TRA = "-") or W(dat)]
#>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> 1   -0.7433333  0.44266667       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> 2   -0.9433333 -0.05733333       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> 3   -1.1433333  0.14266667       -2.458  -0.9993333
#> 4   -1.2433333  0.04266667       -2.258  -0.9993333
#> 5   -0.8433333  0.54266667       -2.358  -0.9993333
#> 6   -0.4433333  0.84266667       -2.058  -0.7993333
head(TRA(v, fmean(v), "replace"))     # Simple replacing [same as fmean(v, TRA = "replace") or B(v)]
#> [1] 5.843333 5.843333 5.843333 5.843333 5.843333 5.843333
head(TRA(m, fmean(m), "replace"))     # [same as sweep(m, 2, fmean(m)), fmean(m, TRA = 1L) or B(m)]
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> [2,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> [3,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> [4,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> [5,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> [6,]     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
head(TRA(dat, fmean(dat), "replace")) # [same as fmean(dat, TRA = "replace") or B(dat)]
#>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> 1     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> 2     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> 3     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> 4     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> 5     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
#> 6     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333
head(TRA(m, fsd(m), "/"))             # Simple scaling... [same as fsd(m, TRA = "/")]...
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]     6.158928    8.029986    0.7930671   0.2623854
#> [2,]     5.917402    6.882845    0.7930671   0.2623854
#> [3,]     5.675875    7.341701    0.7364195   0.2623854
#> [4,]     5.555112    7.112273    0.8497148   0.2623854
#> [5,]     6.038165    8.259414    0.7930671   0.2623854
#> [6,]     6.521218    8.947698    0.9630101   0.5247707

# Note: All grouped examples also apply for v and dat...
head(TRA(m, fmean(m, f), "-", f))       # Centering [same as fmean(m, f, TRA = "-") or W(m, f)]
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]        0.094       0.072       -0.062      -0.046
#> [2,]       -0.106      -0.428       -0.062      -0.046
#> [3,]       -0.306      -0.228       -0.162      -0.046
#> [4,]       -0.406      -0.328        0.038      -0.046
#> [5,]       -0.006       0.172       -0.062      -0.046
#> [6,]        0.394       0.472        0.238       0.154
head(TRA(m, fmean(m, f), "replace", f)) # Replacing [same fmean(m, f, TRA = "replace") or B(m, f)]
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
#> [2,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
#> [3,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
#> [4,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
#> [5,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
#> [6,]        5.006       3.428        1.462       0.246
head(TRA(m, fsd(m, f), "/", f))         # Scaling [same as fsd(m, f, TRA = "/")]
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]     14.46851    9.233260     8.061544    1.897793
#> [2,]     13.90112    7.914223     8.061544    1.897793
#> [3,]     13.33372    8.441838     7.485720    1.897793
#> [4,]     13.05003    8.178031     8.637369    1.897793
#> [5,]     14.18481    9.497068     8.061544    1.897793
#> [6,]     15.31960   10.288490     9.789018    3.795585

head(TRA(m, fmean(m, f), "-+", f))      # Centering on the overall mean ...
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]     5.937333    3.129333        3.696    1.153333
#> [2,]     5.737333    2.629333        3.696    1.153333
#> [3,]     5.537333    2.829333        3.596    1.153333
#> [4,]     5.437333    2.729333        3.796    1.153333
#> [5,]     5.837333    3.229333        3.696    1.153333
#> [6,]     6.237333    3.529333        3.996    1.353333
                                        # [same as fmean(m, f, TRA = "-+") or
                                        #           W(m, f, mean = "overall.mean")]
head(TRA(TRA(m, fmean(m, f), "-", f),   # Also the same thing done manually !!
     fmean(m), "+"))
#>      Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> [1,]     5.937333    3.129333        3.696    1.153333
#> [2,]     5.737333    2.629333        3.696    1.153333
#> [3,]     5.537333    2.829333        3.596    1.153333
#> [4,]     5.437333    2.729333        3.796    1.153333
#> [5,]     5.837333    3.229333        3.696    1.153333
#> [6,]     6.237333    3.529333        3.996    1.353333
 
# Grouped data method
library(magrittr)
iris %>%  fgroup_by(Species) %>% TRA(fmean(.))
#>    Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
#> 1         0.094       0.072       -0.062      -0.046  setosa
#> 2        -0.106      -0.428       -0.062      -0.046  setosa
#> 3        -0.306      -0.228       -0.162      -0.046  setosa
#> 4        -0.406      -0.328        0.038      -0.046  setosa
#> 5        -0.006       0.172       -0.062      -0.046  setosa
#> 6         0.394       0.472        0.238       0.154  setosa
#> 7        -0.406      -0.028       -0.062       0.054  setosa
#> 8        -0.006      -0.028        0.038      -0.046  setosa
#> 9        -0.606      -0.528       -0.062      -0.046  setosa
#> 10       -0.106      -0.328        0.038      -0.146  setosa
#> 11        0.394       0.272        0.038      -0.046  setosa
#> 12       -0.206      -0.028        0.138      -0.046  setosa
#> 13       -0.206      -0.428       -0.062      -0.146  setosa
#> 14       -0.706      -0.428       -0.362      -0.146  setosa
#>  [ reached 'max' / getOption("max.print") -- omitted 136 rows ]
#> 
#> Grouped by:  Species  [3 | 50 (0)] 
iris %>%  fgroup_by(Species) %>% fmean(TRA = "-")        # Same thing
#>    Species Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> 1   setosa        0.094       0.072       -0.062      -0.046
#> 2   setosa       -0.106      -0.428       -0.062      -0.046
#> 3   setosa       -0.306      -0.228       -0.162      -0.046
#> 4   setosa       -0.406      -0.328        0.038      -0.046
#> 5   setosa       -0.006       0.172       -0.062      -0.046
#> 6   setosa        0.394       0.472        0.238       0.154
#> 7   setosa       -0.406      -0.028       -0.062       0.054
#> 8   setosa       -0.006      -0.028        0.038      -0.046
#> 9   setosa       -0.606      -0.528       -0.062      -0.046
#> 10  setosa       -0.106      -0.328        0.038      -0.146
#> 11  setosa        0.394       0.272        0.038      -0.046
#> 12  setosa       -0.206      -0.028        0.138      -0.046
#> 13  setosa       -0.206      -0.428       -0.062      -0.146
#> 14  setosa       -0.706      -0.428       -0.362      -0.146
#>  [ reached 'max' / getOption("max.print") -- omitted 136 rows ]
#> 
#> Grouped by:  Species  [3 | 50 (0)] 
iris %>%  fgroup_by(Species) %>% TRA(fmean(.)[c(2,4)])   # Only transforming 2 columns
#>    Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
#> 1         0.094         3.5       -0.062         0.2  setosa
#> 2        -0.106         3.0       -0.062         0.2  setosa
#> 3        -0.306         3.2       -0.162         0.2  setosa
#> 4        -0.406         3.1        0.038         0.2  setosa
#> 5        -0.006         3.6       -0.062         0.2  setosa
#> 6         0.394         3.9        0.238         0.4  setosa
#> 7        -0.406         3.4       -0.062         0.3  setosa
#> 8        -0.006         3.4        0.038         0.2  setosa
#> 9        -0.606         2.9       -0.062         0.2  setosa
#> 10       -0.106         3.1        0.038         0.1  setosa
#> 11        0.394         3.7        0.038         0.2  setosa
#> 12       -0.206         3.4        0.138         0.2  setosa
#> 13       -0.206         3.0       -0.062         0.1  setosa
#> 14       -0.706         3.0       -0.362         0.1  setosa
#>  [ reached 'max' / getOption("max.print") -- omitted 136 rows ]
#> 
#> Grouped by:  Species  [3 | 50 (0)] 
iris %>%  fgroup_by(Species) %>% TRA(fmean(.)[c(2,4)],   # Dropping species column
                            keep.group_vars = FALSE)
#>    Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> 1         0.094         3.5       -0.062         0.2
#> 2        -0.106         3.0       -0.062         0.2
#> 3        -0.306         3.2       -0.162         0.2
#> 4        -0.406         3.1        0.038         0.2
#> 5        -0.006         3.6       -0.062         0.2
#> 6         0.394         3.9        0.238         0.4
#> 7        -0.406         3.4       -0.062         0.3
#> 8        -0.006         3.4        0.038         0.2
#> 9        -0.606         2.9       -0.062         0.2
#> 10       -0.106         3.1        0.038         0.1
#> 11        0.394         3.7        0.038         0.2
#> 12       -0.206         3.4        0.138         0.2
#> 13       -0.206         3.0       -0.062         0.1
#> 14       -0.706         3.0       -0.362         0.1
#> 15        0.794         4.0       -0.262         0.2
#> 16        0.694         4.4        0.038         0.4
#> 17        0.394         3.9       -0.162         0.4
#>  [ reached 'max' / getOption("max.print") -- omitted 133 rows ]
#> 
#> Grouped by:  Species  [3 | 50 (0)]